Informal Justice as Restorative Justice – Efforts to Improve Relations between State and Traditional Dispute Resolution Mechanisms in Afghanistan (Past Project)
The state justice system in Afghanistan has improved in recent years. Yet it is still unpopular and unable to solve the countless disputes that arise in Afghan society every day. In rural areas in particular, tribal councils called jirgas, shuras, and marakas are used as primary forums of dispute resolution. Over centuries and in separate, more or less autonomous communities, these councils have developed norms to govern communal life. The legitimacy of these norms, which are passed down orally, rests upon consensus within the communities. However, council decisions often violate rights that the State guarantees its citizens – particularly women’s and children’s rights. Furthermore, their decisions are not registered or recognised by state authorities.
The divide between the two systems of justice – i.e. courts and tribal councils – is to some degree bridged by a countrywide structure of Ministry of Justice offices, called Hoqooq Department. Its district offices offer citizens legal advice and mediation. In practice, they also refer civil cases to the tribal councils – however, until to date, without a clear legal basis. Some efforts to develop an official policy on the relations between state and non-state justice mechanisms have focused on the Hoqooq Department. Others aimed at officially recognizing the tribal councils as a complementary system of dispute resolution besides the state courts, and directly connecting them. But consens has not been found during the past years, while access to justice remains an unfulfilled promise for most habitants of the country.
The aim of this project is mainly to introduce the concept of restorative justice to the relevant Afghan stakeholders as a new approach towards bridging the gap between the state justice system and tribal councils. In some regards, the concept of restorative justice is very similar to practices of the Afghan tribal councils.
The starting point of the planned project will be the “Basic Principles on the Use of Restorative Programs in Criminal Matters”, which were introduced by the Economic and Social Council of UN (ECOSOC) in 2002. The project team intends to enable and encourage Afghan stakeholders to use the UN Principles as a starting point for the development of a legal framework for the tribal councils in their own country.
1 January 2014–31 December 2014
Embassy of the Republic of France in Kabul